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A Bibliography of GAP Publications

Published Jul 29, 2010

Current as of January 15, 2011

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Abbitt, R.J.F., J.M. Scott, D.S. Wilcove. 2000. Geography of Vulnerability.   Incorporating species geography and human development patterns into conservation planning. Biological Conservation.   96. 169-175.

Abd-Elrahman, A., L. Pearlstine, B.A. Dewitt, and S.E. Smith. 2001. Detection of positional errors in systems utilizing small-format digital aerial imagery and navigation sensors using area-based matching techniques.Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 67. 825-831.

Acosta, J., R. P. Brooks, and W. A. Gould. 2007. Geographic analysis of habitat change for endemic animal species of Puerto Rico. Association of American Geographers 2007 Annual Meeting   San Francisco, CA.

Adjemian, J.C.Z., E.H. Girvetz, L. Beckett, and J.E. Foley. 2006. Analysis of genetic algorithm for rule-set production (GARP) modeling approach for predicting distributions of fleas implicated as vectors of plague, Yersinia pestis, in California. Journal of Medical Entomology 43(1) pp. 93-103.

Airola, D. A. 1988. Guide to California wildlife habitat relationships system. Calif. Dept. Fish and Game, Rancho Cordova.74pp.

Alfieri, J.G., D. Niyogi, M.A. LeMone, F. Chen, and S. Fall. 2007. A simple reclassification method for correcting uncertainty in land use/land cover data sets used with land surface models. Pure and Applied Geophysics 164:1789-1809.

Allen C.R., L.G. Pearlstine, and W.M. Kitchens. 2001. Modeling viable mammal populations in gap analyses . Biological Conservation 99(2). 135-144. Key Words: biodiversity, conservation, gap analysis, spatially explicit models, species richness.

Allen, C.R., L.G. Pearlstine, D.P. Wojcik, and W.M. Kitchens. 2001. The spatial distribution of diversity between disparate taxa. Spatial correspondence between mammals and ants across South Florida. USA. Landscape Ecology 16. 453-464.

Altaba, C. R. 1990. The last known population of the freshwater mussel Margaritifera auricularia (Bivalvia, Unionoida). A conservation priority.Biological Conservation.52(4).271-286. Key Words: ecology/species diversity/aquatic/mussel/fisheries

Anable, M. E., M. P. McClaran and G. B. Ruyle. 1992. Spread of introduced Lehmann lovegrass (Eragrostis lehmanniana Nees) in southern Arizona, USA.Biological Conservation.61(3).181-188. Key words: species diversity/grass/USA/species introduction/habitat loss

Anderson, J. R., E. E. Hardy, J. T. Roach, and R. E. Witmer, 1976. A Land Use and Land Cover Classification System for Use with Remote Sensor Data.U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 964. p.28.

Angelstam, P., G. Mikusinski, B. I. Rönnbäck, A. Östman, M. Lazdinis, W. Arnberg, J. Olsson, and J. M. Roberge. 2003. Two-dimensional Gap Analysis: A Tool for Efficient Conservation Planning and Biodiversity Policy Implementation.AMBIO. A Journal of the Human Environment. 32(8).527–534.

Armstrong, D. M. 1972. Distribution of mammals in Colorado.Monograph of the Museum of Natural History.University of Kansas. Lawrence, Kansas.3. 41pp.

Assal, T. J., and Lockwood, J. A. 2007. Utilizing remote sensing and GIS to detect prairie dog colonies. Rangeland Ecology and Management. 60(1). pp. 45-53.

Austin, M. P. 1991. Vegetation: data collection and analysis. Pages 37-41 in C. R. Margules and M. P. Austin, eds. Nature conservation: cost effective biological surveys and data analysis.Australia CSIBO, East Melbourne.

Bahre. Conrad. J. 1991. A legacy of change. Historic human impact on vegetation in the Arizona borderlands. Tucson, AZ. The University of Arizona Press. Key words: ecology/flora/rural development/natural forces/theory.

Bain, M.B., A.L. Harig, D.P. Loucks, R.R. Goforth, and K.E. Mills. 2000. Aquatic ecosystem protection and restoration. Advances in methods for assessment and evaluation.Environmental Science and Policy 3(Supplement 1).89-98.

Bain, M. B., M.S. Meixler, and T. A. Muir. 1999. First International Symposium on Gis in Fishery Science. p.94. Key words: gap analysis, gis [geographic information system], spatial models, species distributions, water quality, habitats.

BAJEMA, R., T. L. DEVAULT, P., SCOTT, A ND S. LIMA. 2001. Reclaimed coal mine grasslands and their significance for Henslow’s sparrows in the american Midwest. The Auk. 118(2)  pp. 422-431.

Bajema, R. A., and Lima, S. L.2001. Landscape-level Analyses of Henslow’s Sparrow (Ammodramus Henslowii) Abundance in Reclaimed Coal Mine Grasslands. American Midland Naturalist.   145(2)  pp. 288-298.

Baker, W. L. 1989. A review of models of landscape change.Landscape Ecology.2(2).111-133. Key words: ecology/modeling

Baker, W. L. 1984. A preliminary classification of the natural vegetation of Colorado.Great Basin Naturalist.44. 647-676.

Barker, C.M., B. G., Bolling, C. G. Moore, L. Eisen. 2000. Relationship between distance from major larval habitats and abundance of adult mosquitoes in semiarid plains landscapes in Colorado. Journal of Medical Entomology   46(6)  pp. 1290-8.

Bassett, S. D., and T. C. Edwards. 2003. Effect of different sampling schemes on the spatial placement of conservation reserves in Utah, USA.Biological Conservation. 113(1).141-151. Key words:  Reserve designation, Gap Analysis, Utah, Spatial placement of reserves, Reserve optimization.

Beal, J. G. 2000. Human population and biodiversity in Utah: adding a dmographic component to the Utah gap analysis program analysis. Master’s Thesis.   Utah State University.   Logan, UT.

Beard, K. H., N. Hengartner, and D. K. Skelly. 1999. Effectiveness of Predicting Breeding Bird Distributions Using Probabilistic Models. Conservation Biology.   13(5)  pp. 1108-1116.

Beardsley, K., and D. M. Stoms. 1993. Compiling a digital map of areas managed for biodiversity in California.Natural Areas Journal. 13(3).177-190.

Beatley, T. 1991. Protecting biodiversity in coastal environments: Introduction and overview. Coastal Management. 19(1).1-?

Beattie, A. J. 1991. Biodiversity and bioresources: The forgotten connection. Search. 22(2).59-61. Key words: species diversity

Beck, J. L., K. P. Reese, J. W. Connelly, and M. B. Lucia. 2006. Movements and Survival of Juvenile Greater Sage-Grouse in Southeastern Idaho.Wildlife Society Bulletin.34(4).1070–1078.

Bedford, B. L. and E. M. Preston. 1988. Developing the scientific basis for assessing cumulative effects of wetland loss and degradation on landscape functions: Status, perspectives and prospects. Environmental Management.12(5).751-771. Key words: landscape diversity/wetlands/management/methods

Benjamin, M. T., A. M. Winer, J. Karlik, S. Campbell, B. Jackson, and A. Lashgar. 1998. Assembling a Biogenic Hydrocarbon Emissions Inventory for the SCOS97-NARSTO Modeling Domain. Paper No. 98-A621. 91st Annual Meeting of Air and Waster Management Association. San Diego, CA.

Bernardino, F. S. Jr. and G. H. Dalrymple. 1992. Seasonal activity and road mortality of the snakes of the Pa-hay-okee wetland of Everglades National Park, USA.Biological Conservation. 62(2).71-75. Key words: snakes/USA/tourism/management

Bishop, J. A., and W. L. Myers. 2005. Associations between avian functional guild response and regional landscape properties for conservation planning Ecological Indicators.5(1).33-48. Key words: Functional guilds, Gap analysis, Habitat fragmentation, Species richness.

Bissell, E G. S. S. Aichele, and J. S. Stewart. 2005. Great Lakes aquatic GAP: development of a physical Geographic Information System [GIS] database for riverine systems in the Great Lakes. International Association for Great Lakes Research Conference Program and Abstracts, 2005(48th). p. 15. Key words: remote sensing, GIS (Geographical Information Systems), rivers / lakes, water quality, North America, Great Lakes, fish, mathematical models.

Blaisdell, J. P. and R. C. Holmgren. 1984. Managing Intermountain rangeland-salt desert shrub ranges.USDA Forest Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep.INT-163. Intermountain Forest & Range Exp. Sta Ogden, Utah. 52 pp.

Bock, C. E. and J. H. Bock.1993 Cover of perennial grasses in southeastern Arizona in relation to livestock grazing.Conservation Biology. 7(2).371-377. Key words: species diversity/grass/USA/livestock

Bojorquez-Tapia, L. A., P. F. Folliott and D. P. Guertin. 1990. Multiple-resource modeling as a tool for conservation: Its applicability in Mexico. Environmental Management. 14(3).317-324. Key words: Mexico/government policy/protected areas/modeling

Bojorquez T. L., E. Ezcurra, and V.O. Flores. 1995. Identifying conservation priorities in Mexico through geographic information systems and modeling. Ecological Applications. 5 (1). 215-231.

Bolton, M. P., and B. L. Specht. 1983. A method for selecting nature conservation reserves. Australian National Parks and Wildlife Services. Occas. Pap.8:1-32.

Boone, R. B., and W. B. Krohn. 1999. Modeling the occurrence of bird species. Are the errors predictable?. Ecological Applications. 9. 835-848.

Boone, R. B., and W. B. Krohn. 2000a. Partitioning sources of variation in vertebrate species richness.Journal of Biogeography. 27. 457-470.

Boone, R. B., and W. B. Krohn. 2000b. Relationship between avian range limits and plant transition zones in Maine. Journal of Biogeography. 27. 471-482.

Boone, R. B., and W. B. Krohn. 2000c. Predicting broad-scale occurrences of vertebrates in patchy landscapes. Landscape Ecology. 15. 63-74.

Bowns, J. E. and N. E. West. 1976. Blackbrush (Coleognyne ramosissima Torr.) on Southwestern Utah Rangelands.Utah Agriculture Experiment Station.Research Report 27.Logan Utah.

Boykin, K., B. Thompson, S. Propeck-Gray. 2010. Accuracy of gap analysis habitat models in predicting physical features for wildlife-habitat associations in the southwest U.S Ecological Modeling. 221(23). 2769-2775. Key words: Habitat modelings, Gap Analysis, wildlife-habitat associations, accuracy assessment

Boykin, Kenneth G Boykin, Douglas I Stovall, Rusty. Whitaker, Ryan. 2008. Communication and implementation of GIS data in fire management: a case study. in: Narog, Marcia G., tech. coord eds., Proceedings of the 2002 Fire Conference: Managing fire and fuels in the remaining wildlands and open spaces of the Southwestern United States. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-189U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station. Albany, CA. Boykin, K., D. F. Bradford, and W. G. Kepner. 2008. Habitat Distribution Models for 37 Vertebrate Species in the Mojave Desert Ecoregion of Nevada, Arizona, and Utah. New Mexico Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit.

Branson, F. A. 1966. Geographic distribution and factors affecting the distribution of salt desert shrubs in the United States. BLM Salt Desert Shrub Symposium. Cedar City, Utah.

Breshears, D.D., N.S. Cobb, P.M. Rich, K.P. Price, C.D. Allen, R.G. Balice, W.H. Romme, J.H. Kastens, M.L. Floyd, J. Belnap, J.J. Anderson, O.B. Myers, and C.W. Meyer. 2005. Regional vegetation die-off in response to global-change-type drought. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102(42):15144-15148.

Brinda, J.C., L.R. Stark, J.R. Shevock, and J.R. Spence. 2007. An annotated checklist of the bryophytes of Nevada, with notes on collecting history in the state. The Bryologist 110(4):673-705.

Brooks T., G. A. B. da Fonseca, and A. S. L. Rodrigues. 2004. Species, data, and conservation planning.Conservation Biology.18(6).1682-1688. Key words: environmental diversity, biological diversity, reserve selection, gap analysis, bodiveristy.

Brooks T. M., M. I. Bakarr, T. Bucher, G. A. B. Fonseca, C. Hilton-Taylor et al. 2004. Coverage Provided by the Global Protected-Area System: Is It Enough?. BioScience. 54(12).1081–1091.

Brown, J. F., T. R. Loveland, J. W. Merchant, B. C. Reed, and D. O. Ohlen. 1993. Using multisource data in global land-cover characterization: concepts, requirements, and methods. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. 59. 977- 987.

Brown, D. E., C. H. Lowe, and C. P. Pase. 1980. A digitized systematic classification for ecosystems with an illustrated summary of the natural vegetation of North America. U.S. For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Bep. BM-73. 93pp.

Brussard, P. F. 1991. The role of ecology in biological conservation. Ecological Applications. 1(1).6-12.

Bueno, M 1992. Quantification of Cartographic Generalization in Land Cover Maps Using Spatial Pattern Index Measurements Derived from Digital Satellite Imagery,. Master’s thesis,. Department of Geography, University of California, Santa Barbara.

Burke, R. L. 1990. Conservation of the world’s rarest tortoise. Conservation Biology. 4(2).122-124. Key words: ecology/species diversity/tortoise/livestock

Burke, R. L. 1989. Florida gopher tortoise relocation: Overview and case study.Biological Conservation. 48(4).295-309. Key words: gopher tortoise/habitat loss/management

Burke, V. J. 2000. Landscape ecology and species conservation. Landscape Ecology. 15. 1-3.

Burley, F. W. 1988. Monitoring biological diversity for setting priorities in conservation. Pp. 227-230 in Biodiversity.Editor E. O. Wilson.Washington, D.C National Academy Press.Key words: species diversity/methods/theory

Burrough, P. A. 1986. Principles of geographic information systems for land resources assessment. Oxford Clarendon Press, London, U.K. l92pp.

Butterfield, B.R., B. Csuti, and J.M. Scott. 1994. Modeling vertebrate distributions for Gap Analysis.Pages 53-68 in R.I. Miller, editor.Mapping the diversity of nature. Chapman and Hall, London.

Caicco S. L., J. M. Scott, B. Butterfield, and B. Csuti B. 1995. A gap analysis of the management status of the vegetation of Idaho (USA). Conservation Biology.9(3).498-511. Key words: BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY, CONSERVATION, FIRE.

Camm, J. D., S. Polasky, A. Solow, and B. Csuti. 1996. A note on optimal algorithms for reserve site selection. Biological Conservation. 78. 353-355.

Canhos, V. P., D. L. Canhos and S. De Souza. 1993. Establishment of a computerized biodiversity/biotechnology network: The Brazilian effort. Journal of Biotechnology. 31(1).67-?

Cantú C., R. G. Wright, J. M. Scott, E. Strand. 2004. Assessing biodiversity in Nuevo Leon, Mexico. Are nature reserves the answer? Natural Areas Journal. 24(2)150-153. Key words: conservation planning, GAP, gap analysis, nature reserves

Cantú C., R. G. Wright, J. M. Scott, E. Strand. 2004. Assessment of current and proposed nature reserves of Mexico based on their capacity to protect geophysical features and biodiversity Biological Conservation. 115(3).411-417. Key Words. conservation planning, GAP, gap analysis, nature reserves.

Cantú C, R. G. Wright, J. M. Scott, 2003. Conservation assessment of current and proposed nature reserves of Tamaulipas state, Mexico.Natural Areas Journal. 23(3).220-228.

Carpenter, R. A., editor. 1983. Natural systems for development: What planners need to know, New York. MacMillan Publishing Co.. Key words: interdisciplinary/all levels of diversity/human population/economic activity/government policy/rural development/habitat loss/management/theory/ methods

Cassidy, K. M., and C. Grue. 2006.From global thought to location: translating regional conservation priorities to helpful local guidelines. Northwestern Naturalist. 87. Evergreen State College. Olympia, WA. pp. 164.

Cassidy, K., K. Dvornich, and C. Grue. 1992. Gap Analysis: A proactive approach to protection of biodiversity. Northwest Environmental Journal.8. 178-179.

Cassidy, K. M. 2005.Seasonal Distribution Maps. in: Wahl, T. R., B. Tweit, and S. G. Mlodinoiw eds., Birds of Washington: Status and Distribution. Oregon State University Press. Corvallis, OR.pp. 10-11.

Cassidy KM, Grue CE, Smith MR, Johnson RE, Dvornich KM, McAllister KR, Mattocks PW, Cassady JE, Aubry KB. 2001. Using current protection status to assess conservation prioritie. Biological Conservation. Vol. 97, No. 1 pp 1-20. Key words: GAP ANALYSIS, WASHINGTON, VEGETATION.

Castel-Branco, C. , F. Castro Rego, and O. B. Freire. 1997. GAP analysis and the protection of Biological diversity under the Urban expansion of Caparica /Arrábida.” In Machado, J. R., and J. Ahern. eds., Environmental Challenges in an Expanding Urban World and the Role of Emerging Information Technology. Conference Proceedings. Centro Nacional Informacão Geografica. Lisbon, Portugal.

Chang, K. T., D. L. Verbyla, J. J. Yeo and Z. X. Li. 1994. GIS-based program aids wildlife habitat and timber management. GIS World. 7(1).40-43. Key words: fauna/management/habitat loss

Chavez, P. S. 1988. An Improved Dark-Object Subtraction Technique for Atmospheric Scattering Correction of Multispectral Data. Remote Sensing of Environment.24. 459-479.

Chung, Y.J., and Winer, A.M. 1999. Field assessment of the California gap analysis program database for San Diego county. Madroño. v. 46. no. 4. p. 187-198.

Church, R.L., D.M. Stoms, and F.W. Davis. 1996. Reserve selection as a maximal covering location problem. Biological Conservation 76. 105-112.

Church, R., R. Gerrard, A. Hollander, and D. Stoms. 2000. Understanding the tradeoffs between site quality and species presence in reserve site selection. Forest Science. 46. 157-167.

Church, R. L., D. M. Stoms, F. W. Davis, and B. J. Okin. 1996. Planning management activities to protect biodiversity with GIS and an integrated optimization model. In Proceedings of the Third International Conference/Workshop on Integrating GIS and Environmental Modeling. National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis.Santa Barbara, California.

Clark, F. S. and R. B. Slusher, 2000. Using spatial analysis to drive reserve design: a case study of a national wildlife refuge in Indiana and Illinois (USA). Landscape Ecology. 15(1).75-84. Key words: conservation biology, gap analysis, geographic information system, landscape ecology, national wildlife refuge, reserve design.

Colwell, B. N., editor. 1983. The manual of remote sensing. American Society of Photogrammetry. Falls Church, Va. 2143pp.

Comer P. J. and K. A. Schulz K.A. 2007. Standardized Ecological Classification for Mesoscale Mapping in the Southwestern United States.Rangeland Ecology & Management. 60(3).324–335.

Conroy M. J. and B.R. Noon. 1996. Mapping species richness for conservation of biological diversity: Conceptual and methodological issues. Ecological Applications. 6(3). 763-773.

Conway, C.J., and C. Kirkpatrick. 2007. Effect of forest fire suppression on buff-breasted flycatchers. Journal of Wildlife Management 71(2): 445-457.

Coops, N.C. and R.H. Waring. 2001, Assessing forest growth across southwestern Oregon under a range of current and future global change scenarios using a process model, 3-PG. Global Change Biology 7:15-29.

Corbley K. P. 1996. National GIS fills “gaps” in biological diversity. GIS World. 9(8). 50-53.

Crist, P. 2003. A comparison of the effect of unit of analysis on the conservation status of terrestrial vertebrates in the western United States. University of Idaho. Moscow, ID. Dissertation. 171 p.

Crist. P. J. 2000. Animal-distribution modeling in gap analysis: an evolving science. Conservation Biology. 14(5).1224-1224. Key words: Biodiversity Conservation, Ecology, Environmental Sciences.

Crist, P.J., T.W. Kohley, and J. Oakleaf. 2000. Assessing land-use impacts on biodiversity using an expert systems tool. Landscape Ecology 15(1):47-62.

Crist, P. 1995. Gap Analysis: A federal initiative for cooperative data development, analysis, and planning. Environmental Planning. 12(4).3-5.

Crowe, R. 1996. Use of gap analysis in regional planning in southern California. Pp. 221-238, In J.M. Scott, T.H. Tear, and F.W. Davis (Eds.). Gap Analysis. A Landscape Approach to Biodiversity Planning. American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Bethesda, MD.

Csuti, B., T. A. O’Neil, M. M. Shaughnessy, E. P. Gaines, and J. C. Hak. 2001. Atlas of Oregon Wildlife, second edition. Oregon State University Press.Corvallis.

Csuti, B., S. Polasky, P. H. Williams, R. L. Pressey, J. D. Camm, M. Kershaw, A.R. Kiester, B. Downs, R. Hamilton, M. Huso, K. Sahr. 1997. A comparison of reserve selection algorithms using data on terrestrial vertebrates in Oregon. Biological Conservation.80. 83-97.

Csuti, B. 1996. Mapping animal distribution areas for Gap Analysis. Pp 135-145 In Scott, J. M., T. H. Tear, and F. W. Davis (Eds.).Gap Analysis: A landscape approach to land management issues.American Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. Bethesda, Maryland.

Csuti, B., L.A. Graham, and J.M. Scott. 1995. Gap analysis: A spatial approach to identifying representative areas for maintaining biodiversity. pp. 537-541 In J.A. Bissonette and P.R. Krausman (eds.), Integrating People and Wildlife for a Sustainable Future. The Wildlife Society. Bethesda, MD.

Csuti, B. 1994a. Gap Analysis approaches to mapping and managing biodiversity. Plant Science Bulletin. 40. 118-120.

Csuti, B. 1994c. Gap analysis: Mapping biodiversity for conservation and management. Endangered Species UPDATE. 11(5).1-4.

Csuti, B. 1991. Conservation corridors: Countering habitat fragmentation. Introduction. Pages 81-90 in W.E. Hudson, editor.Landscape linkages and biodiversity. Island Press. Washington, D.C.

Csuti, B., and J.M. Scott. 1991a. Mapping wildlife diversity for Gap Analysis.Western Wildlands. 17(3).13-18.

Csuti, B., and J.M. Scott. 1991b. Northwestern biodiversity initiative. Natural Resource News. Spring 1991).7.

Csuti, B. 1989. Invertebrate conservation: The key to preserving biological diversity.Ohio Lepidopterist 11(2).18-20.

Csuti, B., J.M. Scott, and J. Estes. 1987. Looking beyond species-oriented conservation. Endangered Species UPDATE. 5(2).4.

D’Erchia F. 1995. Geographic information systems and remote sensing applications for ecosystem management. Environmental Management Technical Center. Wisconsin. 27.

Dauwalter D.C., E. J. Pert, W.E. Keith. 2003. An Index of Biotic Integrity for Fish Assemblages in Ozark Highland Streams of Arkansas. Southeastern Naturalist. 2(3).447–468.

Davis, F. W., J. E. Estes, B. C. Csuti, J. M. Scott, D. Stoms, M. Painho, P. Stine, A. Hollander, R. Walker, M. Bueno, C. Cogan, and V. Gray. 1991. Geographic Information Systems analysis of biodiversity in California. Final Report – Year 1. Department of Geography, University of California. Santa Barbara, California.

Davis, F. W., P. A. Stine, D. M. Stoms, M. I. Borchert, and A. D. Hollander. 1995. Gap Analysis of the actual vegetation of California – 1. The southwestern region. Madroño. 42. 40-78.

Davis, F. W., and D. M. Stoms. 1992. Gap Analysis of biodiversity in California. Pages 23-29 in H.M. Kerner, editor. Proceedings of the Symposium on Biodiversity of Northwestern California.Wildland Resources Center Report 29. University of California.Berkeley, California.

Davis, F. W., D. M. Stoms, R. L. Church, B. J. Okin, and K. N. Johnson. 1996. Selecting biodiversity management areas. Pages 1503-1528 in Sierra Nevada Ecosystem Project: Final Report to Congress, vol. II, Assessments and scientific basis for management options. University of California-Davis, Centers for Water and Wildlands Resources. Davis, California.

Davis, F. W., D. M. Stoms, J. E. Estes, J. Scepan, and J. M. Scott. 1990. An information systems approach to the preservation of biological diversity. International Journal of Geographic Information Systems. 4(1).55-78.

Davis F. W., P. A. Stine, D. M. Stoms. 1994. Distribution and conservation status of coastal sage scrub in southwestern California.Journal of Vegetation Science. 5(5).743-756. Key words: GAP ANALYSIS, GIS, LANDSCAPE, REMOTE SENSING.

Davis, T.S. 2009. The ants of South Carolina. Clemson. Clemson University. Dissertation. 257 p.

Dean, D.J., K.R. Wilson, and C. H. Flather.1997. Spatial error analysis of species richness for a Gap Analysis map. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. v. 63. no. 10. p. 1211-1217.

DeGloria, S. D., M. Laba, and S.K. Gregory. 2001. Mapping the state of New York from Landsat TM – Labelled remotely sensed imagery: Fuzzy and conventional accuracy assessment, GIM International. 15(2).76-79.

DeGloria, S. D., M. Laba, S. K. Gregory. J. Braden, D. Ogurcak, E. Hill, E. Fegraus, J. Fiore, A. Stalter, J. Beecher, R. Elliott, and J. Weber. 2001. Conventional and fuzzy accuracy assessment of land cover maps at regional scale.Proceeedings, 4th International Symposium on Spatial Accuracy Assessment in Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences.July 2000. Amsterdam.

DellaSala, D.A., N.L. Staus, J.R. Strittholt, A. Hackman, and A. Iacobelli. 2001. An updated protected areas database for the United States and Canada. Natural Areas Journal 21(2):124-135.

Department of Energy. 2005. Environmental assessment for the proposed withdrawal of public lands within and surrounding the Caliente Rail Corridor, Nevada. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. U.S. Department of Energy. 30 p.

Derge K. L., R. H. Yahner. 2000. Ecology of Sympatric Fox Squirrels (Sciurus niger) and Gray Squirrels (S. carolinensis) at Forest-farmland Interfaces of Pennsylvania. The American Midland Naturalist. 143(2).355–369.

Desender, K. and H. Turin. 1989. Loss of habitats and changes in the composition of the ground and tiger beetle fauna in four west European countries since 1950 (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelidae). Biological Conservation. 48(4).277-294. Key words: species diversity/tiger beetles/Europe/agriculture/habitat loss/habitat fragmentation

Diamond, J. 1986. The design of a nature reserve system for Indonesian New Guinea. Pages 485- 503 in M. E. Soule, ed. Conservation biology: the science of scarcity and diversity. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, Mass.

Didier, K.A., and W.F. Porter. 1999, Large-scale assessment of potential habitat to restore elk to New York State. Wildlife Society Bulletin 27(2,):409-418.

Dietz, R. and B. Czech. 2005. Conservation Deficits for the Continental United States: an Ecosystem Gap Analysis.Conservation Biology. 19(5). 1478-1488.Key words: ECOSYSTEM management, ENVIRONMENTAL management, NATURE conservation, BIODIVERSITY conservation, GEOGRAPHIC information systems, ECOLOGY

Dixon, J. A. and P. B. Sherman. 1991. Economics of protected areas. Ambio.20(2).68-74. Key words: economics/government policy/protected areas

Doak, D. 1989. Spotted owls and old growth logging in the Pacific Northwest. Conservation Biology 3(4).389-396. Key words: ecology/birds/habitat loss/habitat fragmentation/management/theory

Docherty, M., E. Hertz, C. Gesauldo, R. Dressler, and J. McPhedran. 2000. Habitat-based approach to open space planning. Maine IS Technology. 4(8).1-2.

Dodd, C. K. 1990. Effects of habitat fragmentation on a stream-dwelling species, the flattened musk turtle (Sternotherus depressus). Biological Conservation. 54(1).33-45. Key words: ecology/species diversity/agriculture/industry/water development/habitat loss/ecosystem stress/theory

Dourojeanni, M. J. 1990. Entomology and biodiversity conservation in Latin America. American Entomologist 36(2):88-93. Key Words: other biological science/species diversity/invertebrates/Latin America

Driese K. L., W. A. Reiners, E. H. Merrill, and K. G. Gerow. 1997. A digital land cover map of Wyoming, USA: A tool vegetation analysis. Journal of Vegetation Science.8(1). 133-146.

Driese, K.L. 2004. The application of geographic information science to environmental research. University of Wyoming. Dissertation. Laramie, WY. 182 p.

Duever, L. C., and R. F. Noss. 1990. A computerized method of priority ranking for natural areas. Pages 22-33 in R.S. Mitchell, C.J. Sheviak, and D.J. Leopold, editors.. Ecosystem management: Rare species and significant habitats. Bulletin No. 471. New York State Museum. Albany, New York.

Dumas, J.P. 2005. A spatial decision support system utilizing data from the Gap Analysis Program and a Bayesian belief network. Mississippi State University. Mississippi State, MS. Master’s thesis. 104 p.

Dzialak, M.R., K.M. Carter, and M. Lack. 2007. Perch site selection by reintroduced peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus. Wildlife Biology 13:225-230.

Edwards, T. C., Jr. 1995. Protection status of vegetation cover-types in Utah. Pages 463-464. in E. T. LaRoe, G.S. Farris, C.E. Puckett, P.D. Doran, and M.J. Mac, editors. Our living resources.National Biological Service. Washington, D.C.

Edwards, T. C., Jr 1996. Letters: Data defensibility and Gap Analysis. BioScience. 46. 75-77.

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Edwards, T. C., Jr., and J. M. Scott. 1994. Use of gap analysis as a tool for the management of biodiversity. Pages 82-86 in I.D. Thompson, senior editor. Proceedings, International Union of Game Biologists, XXI Congress. August 15, 1993. Halifax, Canada.Volume 1.

Edwards, T. C., Jr., J. M. Scott, C. G. Homer, and R. D. Ramsey. 1993. Gap Analysis: A geographic approach for assessing national biological diversity. Natural Resources and Environmental Issues. 2. 65-71.

Eisen R. J., R. E. Enscore, B. J. Biggerstaff, P. J. Reynolds, P. Ettestad. 2007. Human Plague in the Southwestern United States, 1957–2004. Spatial Models of Elevated Risk of Human Exposure to Yersinia pestis. Journal of Medical Entomology. 44(3).530–537.

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Falconer, A., T. C. Edwards, Jr., and J. M. Scott. 1994. Environmental data base products for decision-making: The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Gap Analysis prototype. Pages 73-81 in A. Singh, editor. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Developing Large Environmental Data Bases for Sustainable Development, United Nations Environment Programme Series No. 22.

Falkowski, M. J., J. S. Evans, S. Martinuzzi, P. E. Gessler, and A. T. Hudak. 2009. Characterizing Forest Succession with Lidar Data: an Evaluation for the Inland Northwest USA. Remote Sensing of Environment. 113. 946–956.

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Ford, T.B., D. E. Winslow, D. R. Whitehead, and M. A. Koukol. 2001. Reproductive success of forest-dependent songbirds near an agricultural corridor in south-central Indiana. Auk. v. 118. no. 4. p. 864-873.

Franklin, J., 2002. Enhancing a regional vegetation map with predictive models of dominant plant species in chaparral. Applied Vegetation Science. v. 5. no. 1. p. 135-146.

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Frescino, T. S., T. C. Edwards, Jr., and G. G. Moisen. 2001. Modelling spatially explicit forest structural variables using generalized additive models. Journal of Vegetation Science. 12. 15-26.

Frescino, T.S. 1998. Development and validation of forest habitat models in the Uinta Mountains, Utah. Logan,

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Gergely K., J. M. Scott, D. Goble. 2000. A new direction for the U.S. National Wildlife Refuges: the National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act of 1997. Natural Areas Journal 20. 107-118.

Gerrard, R.A., R.L. Church, D.M. Stoms, and R.W. Davis. 1997, Selecting conservation reserves using species-covering models: adapting the ARC/INFO GIS. Transactions in GIS 2(1):45-60.

Gonzalez, G., W.A. Gould, A.T. Hudak, and T.N. Hollingsworth. 2008. Decay of Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) Wood in Moist and Dry Boreal, Temperate, and Tropical Forest Fragments. Ambio 37(7):588-597.

Gonzalez-Rebeles, C., V. J. Burke, M. D. Jennings, G. Ceballos, and N. C. Parker. 1998. Transnational gap analysis of the Rio Bravo/Rio Grande region. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. 64. 1115-1118.

Gonzalez-Rebeles, C., B. C. Thompson, and F. C Bryant. 2002. Influence of selected environmental variables on GIS-habitat models used for gap analysis. Pages 639-651 in J.M. Scott, P.J. Heglund, M.L. Morrison et al., editors. Predicting species occurrences: Issues of accuracy and scale. Island Press, Washington, D.C 868 pp.

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Gregory C. J., R. R. Carthy, L. G. Pearlstine. 2006. Survey and Monitoring of Species at Risk at Camp Blanding Training Site, Northeastern Florida. Southeastern Naturalist. 5(3).473–498.

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Grivet, D., V.L. Sork, R.D. Westfall, and R.W. Davis. 2008, Conserving the evolutionary potential of California valley oak (Quercus lobata Née): a multivariate genetic approach to conservation planning. Molecular Ecology 17(1):139-156.

Groves C. R., D. B. Jensen, L. L. Valutis, K. H. Redford, M. L. Shaffer. 2002. Planning for Biodiversity Conservation: Putting Conservation Science into Practice. BioScience. 52(6).499–512.

Groves, C.R., L. S. Kutner, D. M. Stoms, M. P. Murray, J. M. Scott, M. Schafale, A. S. Weakley, and R. L. Pressey. 2000. Owning up to our responsibilities: Who owns lands important for biodiversity? Pages 275-297 in B.A. Stein, L.S. Kutner, and J.S. Adams, editors. Precious heritage: The status of biodiversity in the United States.The Nature Conservancy and Association for Biodiversity Information. Oxford University Press.New York.

Groves, C. R., B. Butterfield, A. Lippincott, B. Csuti, and J. M. Scott. 1997. Atlas of Idaho’s Wildlife: Integrating Gap Analysis and Natural Heritage information. Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Nongame and Endangered Wildlife Program. Boise, Idaho.

Groves, C. 1992. Beyond endangered species: Gap Analysis. Idaho Wildlife.12(1).26-27.

Hagan, C.A., J. C. Pitman, R. J. Robel, T. M. Loughin, and R. D. Applegate. 2007. Niche partitioning by lesser prairie-chicken Tympanuchus pallidicinctus and ring-necked pheasant Phasianus colchicus in southwestern Kansas. Wildlife Biology. v. 13 no. Suppl. 1. p. 34-41.

Haight, R.G., D.T. Cleland, R.B. Hammer, V.C. Radeloff, and T.S. Rupp. 2004. Assessing fire risk in the wildland-urban interface. Journal of Forestry 102(7):41-48.

Haines, A. M, M. Leu, L. K. Svancara, G. Wilson, and J. M. Scott. 2010. Using a Distribution and Conservation Status Weighted Hotspot Approach to Identify Areas in Need of Conservation Action to Benefit Idaho Bird Species.Northwest Science.84(1).170-182.

Hansen, M.H., and D. G. Wendt, 2000. Using classified Landsat Thematic Mapper data for stratification in a statewide forest inventory. in First Annual Forest Inventory and Analysis Symposium. General Technical Report NC-213. U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, North Central Research Station. St. Paul, MN. p. 20-27.

Hanser, S.E., and N.J. Huntly. 2006. The biogeography of small mammals of fragmented sagebrush-steppe landscapes. Journal of Mammalogy 87(6):1165-1174.

Hart, M. M. 1999. Montana gap analysis: a first approximation of wilderness contributions to wildlife conservation. Intermountain Journal of Sciences. 5(1-4).53. Key words: Gap Analysis, Conservation, mapping, techniques.

Heathman, G. C., and M. Larose. 2006. Modeling streamflow using SWAT with different soil and land cover geospatial data sets. in International Association of Science and Technology for Development Symposium. Environmental Modelling and Simulation Conference.St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands. Paper No. 556-025.

Heathman, G.C., M. Larose, and J. C. Ascough. 2009. Soil and water assessment tool evaluation of soil and land use geographic information system data sets on simulated stream flow. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. v. 64. no. 1. p. 17-32.

Heaton, J.S., A.R. Kiester, and S.M. Meyers. 2006. LizLand: A geomorphic approach to lizard habitat modeling in the Mojave Desert. Journal of Arid Environments 67:202-225.

Heilman, G. E., J. R. Strittholt, N. C. Slosser, and D. A. Dellasala. 2002. Forest Fragmentation of the Conterminous United States: Assessing Forest Intactness through Road Density and Spatial Characteristics.BioScience. 52(5).411–422.

Helmer, E. H., O. Ramos, T. del Mar Lopez, M. Quiñones, and W. Diaz. 2002. Mapping forest type and land cover of Puerto Rico, an island within the Caribbean biodiversity hotspot. Caribbean Journal of Science. 38. 165-183.

Henebry, G. M., and J. W. Merchant. 2002. Geospatial data in time: Limits and prospects for predicting species occurrences. Pages 291-302 in J.M. Scott, P.J. Heglund, M.L. Morrison et al., editors. Predicting species occurrences: Issues of accuracy and scale. Island Press. Washington, D.C 868 pp.

Hepinstall, J. A., W. B. Krohn, and S. A. Sader. 2002. Effects of niche width on the performance and agreement of avian habitat models. Pages 593-606 in J.M. Scott, P.J. Heglund, M.L. Morrison et al., editors. Predicting species occurrences: Issues of accuracy and scale. Island Press. Washington, D.C.. 868 pp.

Hepinstall, J. A., S. A. Sader, W. B. Krohn, R. B. Boone, and R. I. Bartlett. 2000. Development and testing of a vegetation and land cover map of Maine. Technical Bulletin 173, Maine Agricultural and Forest Experiment Station. University of Maine. 104 pp.

Hepinstall, J.A. 2000. Creating spatially explicit predictions of bird presences. in Maine: evaluating input data, model performance, and model output. Dissertation. University of Maine. Orono, ME.165 p.

Herbert, M. E., P. B. McIntyre, P. J. Doran, J. D. Allan, R. Abell. 2010. Terrestrial Reserve Networks Do Not Adequately Represent Aquatic Ecosystems. Conservation Biology. 24(4).1002-1011. Key words: fish conservation, freshwater conservation, groundwater, insect conservation, mollusk conservation, protected areas, riparian, wetlands.

Hoffman, J.D., and J.R. Choate. 2008. Distribution and status of the yellow-faced pocket gopher in Kansas. Western North American Naturalist 68(4):483-492.

Hoffman, J.D., S. Narumalani,D.R. Mishra, P. Merani, and R.G. Wilson. 2008, Predicting potential occurrence and spread of invasive plant species along the North Platte River, Nebraska. Invasive Plant Science and Management 1(4):359-367.

Hoffman J. D., J. R. Choate, and R.Channell. 2007. Effects of Land Use and Soil Texture on Distributions of Pocket Gophers in Kansas. The Southwestern Naturalist. 52(2)296–301.

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Homer, C. G., T. C. Edwards, Jr., D. H. Ramsey, and K. H. Price. 1993. Use of remote sensing methods in modeling sage grouse winter habitat. Journal of Wildlife Management. 57. 78-84.

Homer, C. G., R. D. Ramsey, T. C. Edwards, Jr., and A. Falconer. 1997. Landscape cover-type modeling using a multi-scene Thematic Mapper mosaic. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. 63. 59-67.

Homer, C.G., C. Huang, L. Yang, B. Wylie, and M. Coan. 2004. Development of a 2001 National Land-cover database for the United States. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing 70(7):829-840.

Homer, C.G., J. Dewitz, J. Fry, M. Coan, N. Hossain, C. Larson, N. Herold, A. McKerrow, J.N. VanDriel, and J. Wickham. 2007. Completion of the 2001 National Land Cover Database for the Conterminous United States. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing 73(4): 337-341.

Hopton, M.E., and A.L. Mayer. 2006, Using self-organizing maps to explore patterns in species richness and protection. Biodiversity and Conservation 15(14):4477-4494.

Huang, C.-Y., G.P. Asner, R.E. Martin, N.N. Barger, and J.C. Neff. 2009. Multiscale analysis of tree cover and aboveground carbon stocks in pinyon-juniper woodlands. Ecological Applications 19(3):668-681.

Howell, J. E., J. T. Peterson, M. J. Conroy. 2008. Building hierarchical models of avian distributions for the State of Georgia. Journal of Wildlife Management. 72(1).168-178. Key words: GAP analysis (Planning), land zones, modeling.

Hunter,L., J. Beal, and T. Dickinson, 2003. Human Dimensions of Wildlife.8(2).145-157. 2003. Key words, Conservation, Diversity, Settlement, CONSERVATION of natural resources,GAP analysis (Planning),GEOGRAPHIC information systems,HABITAT (Ecology) — Modification,HABITAT (Ecology) — Management.

Hurley, P.T. 2001. Conserving threatened habitat types in rural landscapes through land use planning: a case study in Wasco County, Oregon. University of Oregon.Master’s thesis. Eugene, OR.177 p.

Hychka, K.C.,D. H. Wardrop, and R.P. Brooks. 2007. Enhancing a landscape assessment with intensive data: A case study in the Upper Juniata watershed. Wetlands 27(3):446-461.

Islas, C.G.-R. 1996. A sensitivity test for species distribution models used for gap analysis in New Mexico. Lubbock, TX, Texas Tech University, 145 p.

Jacobs, S. R., K. A. Thomas, and C. A. Drost. 2001. Mapping land cover and animal species distributions for conservation planning: An overview of the Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Program in Arizona. Pages 159-172 in C. van Riper III, K. A. Thomas, and M. A. Stuart, editor. Proceedings of the Fifth Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado Plateau. FRESC Report Series USGS FRESC/COPL/2001/24.

Jantz, P., and S. Goetz. 2008. Using widely available geospatial data sets to assess the influence of roads and buffers on habitat core areas and connectivity. Natural Areas Journal 28(3):261-274.

Jennings, M. D., 2000. Gap analysis: concepts, methods, and recent results. Landscape Ecology. 15(1).21-33. Key words: RESERVE SELECTION, BIODIVERSITY, DIVERSITY, IDAHO, MANAGEMENT, VEGETATION, LANDSCAPES, HOTSPOTS, FUTURE, USA, gap analysis.

Jennings, M. D., B. Csuti, and J. M. Scott. 1997. Wildlife habitat relationship models: Distribution and abundance. Conservation Biology. 11. 1271-1272.

Jennings, M. D. 1995a. Habitat assessments: Overview. Pages 461-462 in E. T. LaRoe, G. S. Farris, C. E. Puckett, P. D. Doran, and M. J. Mac, editors. Our living resources. National Biological Service. Washington, D.C.

Jennings, M. D., 1995. Gap analysis today: A confluence of biology, ecology, and geography for management of biological resources. Wildlife Society Bulletin. 23(4).658-662. Key words: RESERVE SELECTION, BIODIVERSITY, DIVERSITY, IDAHO, MANAGEMENT, VEGETATION, LANDSCAPES, HOTSPOTS, FUTURE, USA, gap analysis.

Jennings, M. D., and J. M. Scott. 1993a. Building a macroscope: How well do places managed for biodiversity match reality? Renewable Resources Journal. (Summer).16-20.

Jennings, M. D., and J. M. Scott. 1993.Gap Analysis: Information for conserving biodiversity. Idaho Forester. 40-41.

Joly, K., and W. L. Myers. 2001. Patterns of mammalian species richness and habitat associations in Pennsylvania. Biological Conservation. 99. 253-260.

Karl, J. W., L. K. Svancara, P. J. Heglund, N. M. Wright, and J. M. Scott.  2002. Species commonness and the accuracy of habitat-relationship models. Pages 573-580 in Scott, J. M., P. J. Heglund, M. L. Morrison et al., eds. Predicting Species Occurrences: Issues of Accuracy and Scale. Island Press.Washington, DC

Karl, J. W., P. J. Heglund, E. O. Garton, J. M. Scott, N. M. Wright, and R. L. Hutto. 2000. Sensitivity of species habitat-relationship model performance to factors of scale. Ecological Applications. 10. 1690-1705.

Karl, J. W., N. M. Wright, P. J. Heglund, and J. M. Scott. 1999. Obtaining environmental measures to facilitate vertebrate habitat modeling. Wildlife Society Bulletin. 27. 357-365.

Karl, J. W., N. Wright, P. J. Heglund, J. M. Scott. 1997. Craig Mountain Wildlife Management Area species of interest: Wildlife habitat relationship models. Completion report. Idaho Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit. 33pp.

Karlik, J.F., Y.J. Chung, and A.M. Winer. 2003. Biogenic emission inventory development: field assessment of the GAP vegetation database in California. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 28(8):315-325.

Karlik, J.F., E. D. Albertson, Y. J. Chung, A. H. McKay, and A. M. Winer. 2002. Field assessment of the California Gap Analysis Program GIS database in central California. Madroño. v. 49. no. 2. p. 99-114.

Kepner, W., and K. G. Boykin. 2009. Modeling landscape-scale ecosystem services relative to biodiversity in the Upper San Pedro River Basin (U.S. – Mexico) (Abstract). in Papers from the Annual Meeting of the Association of American Geographers. Las Vegas, NV.

Kiester A. R., M. J. Scott, B. Csuti, R. F. Noss, B. Butterfield, K. Sahr and D. Sahr. 1996. Conservation prioritization using GAP data.Conservation Biology. 10(5).1332-1342.

Kirkpatrick C., C. J. Conway, K. M. Hughes, J. C. Devos Jr. 2007. Probability of Detecting Band-Tailed Pigeons During Call-Broadcast Versus Auditory Surveys.Journal of Wildlife Management.71(1).231–237.

Kleiner, K., Vogt, A., Mackenzie, M.D., J. B. and Grand. 2007. Developing a decision-support tool for longleaf pine conservation in the Southeast. ESA/SER Joint Meeting. August 5-10, 2007. San Jose, CA.

Knutson M. G., G. J. Niemi, W. E. Newton, M. A. Friberg. 2004. Avian Nest Success in Midwestern Forests Fragmented by Agriculture.The Condor. 106(1)116–130.

Krohn, W. B., R. B. Boone, and S. L. Painton. 1999. Quantitative delineation and characterization of hierarchical biophysical regions of Maine.Northeastern Naturalist. 6. 139-164.

Laba M., S. K. Gregory, J. Braden, D. Ogurcak, E. Hill, E. Fegraus, J. Fiore, S. D. DeGloria. 2002. Conventional and fuzzy accuracy assessment of the New York Gap Analysis Project land cover map.Remote Sensing of Environment.81(81).443-455. Key words: REMOTE SENSING OF ENVIRONMENT.

LaBram, J. A., A. E. Peck, and C. R. Allen, 2007. Monitoring-based assessment of gap-analysis models.Southeastern Naturalist.6(4). 633-656. Key words: DIVERSITY, VERTEBRATES

Landis, J. D., J. P. Monzon, M. Reilly. and C. Cogan. 1998. Development and pilot application of the California Urban and Biodiversity Analysis (CURBA) model. ESRI Users Conference. San Diego, CA.

Larrucea, E.S., and P. F. Brussard. 2008. Habitat selection and current distribution of the pygmy rabbit in Nevada and California, USA. Journal of Mammalogy. v. 89. no. 3. p. 691-699.

Larsen P. F., S. Barker, J. Wright, C. B. Erickson. 2004. Use of Cost Effective Remote Sensing to Map and Measure Marine Intertidal Habitats in Support of Ecosystem Modeling Efforts: Cobscook Bay, Maine. Northeastern Naturalist. 11(sp2).225–242.

Larson B. D. and R. R. Sengupta, 2004. A spatial decision support system to identify species-specific critical habitats based on size and accessibility using US GAP data. Environmental Modelling and Software. 19(1).7-18. Key words: GAP, spatial decision support systems, individual area requirement (IAR). minimum viable population (MVP). reach.

Laurent E. J., H. J. Shi, D. Gatziolis, J. P. LeBouton, M. B. Walters, J. G. Liu. 2005. Using the spatial and spectral precision of satellite imagery to predict wildlife occurrence patterns. Remote Sensing of Environment. 97( 2). 249-262. Key words: Landsat, forest, birds, habitat, prediction, GAP, gap analysis, wildlife occurrence, Michigan, NDVI, SWIR, multiple season images, accuracy assessment, image classification.

Lauver C. L., K. Kindscher, D. Faber-Langendoen, and R. Schneider. 1999. A Classification of the natural vegetation of Kansas. The Southwestern Naturalist. 44(4).421-433. Key words: biodiversity, gap analysis, ecology.

Lawler, J. J., and T. C. Edwards, Jr. 2002. Landscape patterns as predictors of nesting habitat: Building and testing models for four species of cavity-nesting birds. Landscape Ecology. 17. 233-245.

Leu, M., S. E. Hanser, and S. T. Knick. 2008. The human footprint in the west: a large-scale analysis of anthropogenic impacts. Ecological Applications. v. 18. no. 5. p. 1119-1139.

Lindell, C.A., D.G. McCullough, D. Cappaert, N.M. Apostolou, and M.B. Roth. 2008. Factors Influencing Woodpecker Predation on Emerald Ash Borer. American Midland Naturalist 159:434-444.

Lipow, S.R., K. Vance-Borland, J. B. St. Clair, J. A. Henderson, and C. McCain. 2007. In situ gene conservation of six conifers in western Washington and Oregon. Western Journal of Applied Forestry. v. 22. no. 3. p. 176-187.

Lipow S. R., K.  Vance-Borland, J. B. St Clair, J. Henderson, C. McCain. 2004. Gap analysis of conserved genetic resources for forest trees. Conservation Biology. 18(2).412-423. Key words: Biodiversity Conservation, Ecology, Environmental Sciences.

Lomolino M. V. and G. A. Smith. 2001. Dynamic Biogeography of Prairie Dog (Cynomys Ludovicianus) Near the Edge of their Range. Journal of Mammalogy.82(4).937–945.

Lomolino, M. V. 1994. An evaluation of alternative strategies for building networks of nature reserves. Biological Conservation.69. 243-249.

Love, J.W., and E.B. May. 2007. Relationships between fish assemblage structure and selected environmental factors in Maryland’s coastal bays. Northeastern Naturalist 14(2):251-268.

Lowe, R.C., C. J. Cieszewski, S. Liu, Q. Meng, J.P. Siry, M. Zasada, and J. Zawadzki. 2009. Assessment of stream management zones and road beautifying buffers in Georgia based on remote sensing and various ground inventory data. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry. v. 33. no. 2. p. 91-100.

Lowry, J., R. D. Ramsey, K. Thomas, D. Schrupp, T. Sajwaj, J. Kirby, E. Waller, S. Schrader,S. Falzarano, L. Langs, G. Manis, C. Wallace, K. Schulz, P. Comer, K. Pohs, W. Rieth, C. Velasquez, B. Wolk, W. Kepner, K. Boykin. 2007. Mapping moderate-scale land-cover over very large geographic areas within a collaborative framework: A case study of the Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project (SWReGAP). Remote Sensing of Environment. 108(1).59-63. Key words: Collaborative projects, Decision tree classifiers, Gap Analysis Program (GAP), Geographic information systems, Land-cover mapping, Large-area mapping, Meso-scale mapping, Moderate scale mapping, Remote sensing, Southwestern U.S., Vegetation mapping.

Ma, Z., M. M. Hart, and R. L. Redmond. 2001. Mapping vegetation across large geographic areas: Integration of remote sensing and GIS to classify multisource data. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing.67. 295-307.

Ma, Z., and R. L. Redmond. 1995. Tau coefficients for accuracy assessment of classification of remote sensing data. Photogrammetic Engineering and Remote Sensing. 61. 435-439.

Ma, Z., and R. L. Redmond. 1996. Building attribute tables for raster GIS files with ARC/INFO. Pages 198-201 in S. Morain and S. Lopez Baros, editors.Raster imagery in Geographic Information Systems. OnWord Press. Santa Fe, New Mexico.

Machlis, G. E., J. M. Scott, D. J. Forester, and C. B. Cogan. 1995. The application of gap analysis to decision making in the U.S. National Wildlife Refuge System. Pages 566-574 in Transactions of the 59th North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference (1994).Wildlife Management Institute. Washington, D.C.

Machlis, G. E., J. M. Scott, D. J. Forester, and C. B. Cogan. 1994. The application of Gap Analysis to decision making in the U.S. National Wildlife Refuge System. Pp 66-74 In Transactions of the 59th North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference.

Machlis, G. E., D. J. Forester, and J. E. McKendry. 1994. Biodiversity Gap Analysis: Critical challenges and solutions. A report on an advanced research workshop at Semiahmoo, Washington. Contribution No. 736. Idaho Forest, Wildlife and Range Experiment Station, University of Idaho.Moscow, Idaho.

Machlis, G. E., D. J. Forester, and J. E. McKendry. 1994. Gap analysis and national parks: Adding the socioeconomic dimension.Park Science. 14(1).6-10.

Machlis, G.E. 1992. The contribution of sociology to biodiversity research and management. Biological Conservation. 62. 161-170.

Machlis, G. E., and D. Forester. 1992. Extended Gap Analysis: A technique for biodiversity management of protected areas. Paper presented at the IVth World Congress on National Parks and Protected Areas.Caracas, Venezuela.February 10-12, 1992.

Mahan C. G., T. J. O’Connell. 2005. Small Mammal Use of Suburban and Urban Parks in Central Pennsylvania.Northeastern Naturalist. 12(3).307–314.

Manier, D.J., N.T. Hobbs, D.M. Theobald, R.M. Reich, M.A. Kalkhan, and M.R. Campbell. 2005. Canopy dynamics and human caused disturbance on a semi-arid landscape in the Rocky Mountains, USA. Landscape Ecology 20:1-17.

Martin, D.J., G.C. White, and F.M. Pusateri. 2007. Occupancy rates by swift foxes (vulpes velox) in eastern Colorado. Southwestern Naturalist 52(4): 541-551.

Martinuzzi, S., L. Vierling, W. Gould, M. Falkowski, L. Evan, A. Hudak, K. Vierling. 2009. Mapping snags and understory shrubs for a LiDAR-based assessment of wildlife habitat suitability.Remote Sensing of Environment. 113. 2533-2546.

Martinuzzi, S., L. Vierling, K. Vierling, W. Gould, A. Hudak. 2009. Incorporating remotely sensed tree canopy cover data into broad scale assessments of wildlife habitat distribution and conservation. Journal of Applied Remote Sensing. 3, 033568.

Martinez, L.A., and S. Penland. 2009. Land cover changes of the Lake Ponchartrain Basin: 1982-2005. Journal of Coastal Research. SI(54):37-47.

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Mattice, J. A., D. W. Brauning, and D. R. Diefenbach. 2005. Abundance of Grassland SparPublications on Reclaimed Surface Mines in Western Pennsylvania. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep.   PSW-GTR-191 pp. 504-510.

Mawdsley, J.R. 2001. Ecology, biogeography, and conservation of checkered beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera: Cleridae) in southeastern Arizona: A geographic information system (GIS) study. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 127(3):431-449.

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Moisen, G. G., and T. C. Edwards, Jr. 1999. Use of generalized linear models and digital data in a forest inventory of northern Utah.Journal of Agricultural, Biological and Environmental Statistics. 4. 164-182.

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Moritz, M., D. M. Stoms, M. I. Borchert, and F. Davis. 1997. A proposed protocol for identifying potential research natural areas with gap analysis data. Seventeenth Annual ESRI User Conference. ESRI. San Diego, CA. URL:

Naugle, D.E., R.R. Johnson, M.E. Estey, and K.F. Higgins. 2001. A landscape approach to conserving wetland bird habitat in the prairie pothole region of eastern South Dakota. Wetlands 21(1):1-17.

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Noss, R. F. 1991. Protecting habitats and biological diversity: Design of regional reserve systems National Audubon Society. New York.

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Noss, R. F. 1992. Issues of scale in conservation biology. Pages 239-250 in P.L. Fiedler and S.K. Jain, editors.Conservation biology: The theory and practice of nature conservation, preservation, and management.Chapman and Hall. New York.

Noss, R. F. 1996. Conservation of biodiversity at the landscape scale. Pages 574-589 in R.C. Szaro and D.W. Johnston, editors. Biodiversity in managed landscapes:Theory and practice. Oxford University Press. New York.

Noss, R. F., S. P. Cline, B. Csuti, and J. M. Scott. 1992. Monitoring and assessing biodiversity. Pages 67-85 in E. Lykke, editor.Achieving environmental goals: The concept and practice of environmental performance review. Belhaven Press. London.

Noss, R. F., and B. Csuti. 1997. Habitat fragmentation. Pages 269-304 in G.K. Meffe and C.R. Carroll, editors. Principles of conservation biology. Second edition.Sinauer Associates, Inc Sunderland, Massachusetts.

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O’Neil, T. A., R. J. Steidl, W. D. Edge, and B. Csuti. 1995. Using wildlife communities to improve vegetation classification for conserving biodiversity. Conservation Biology 9. 1482-1491.

Oleson, K.W., K.L. Driese, J.A. Maslanik, W.J. Emery, and W.A. Reiners. 1997. The sensitivity of a land surface parameterization scheme to the choice of remotely sensed land-cover datasets. Monthly Weather Review 125(7):1537-1555.

Overton, C.T., R. A. Schmitz, and M. L. Casazza. 2005. Post-precipitation bias in band-tailed pigeon surveys conducted at mineral sites. Wildlife Society Bulletin. 33(3):1047-1054.

Overton, C.T., R. A. Schmitz, and M. L. Casazza. 2006. Linking landscape characteristics to mineral site use by band-tailed pigeons in western Oregon: coarse-filter conservation with fine-filter tuning. Natural Areas Journal. 26(1):38-46.

Park, S. 2008. Harmonic analysis of long-term modis time-series data for vegetation dynamics in Hawaii. ASPRS 2008 Annual Conference. Portland, OR. April 28-May 2, 2008.

Parker, N. C., R. Sims, R. Estrada, C. B. Fedler, R. Leyva, J. Johnson, and Y. Lan. 1997. GIS applications in agricultural and natural resource management in Texas.Written for presentation at the 1997 International Summer Meeting sponsored by The American Society of Agricultural Engineers. Minneapolis, Minnesota. August 10-14, 1997. 17 pp.

PassinoReader, D. R., P. J. Steen, J. E. Mckenna, J. S. Stewart and S. S. Aichele. 2005. Prediction of fish distributions in Great Lakes streams from habitat variables using continuous and categorical fish data. International Association for Great Lakes Research Conference Program and Abstracts 2005(48th). pp. 146-147.Key words: gap analysis, fish distributions, habitat, land cover, modeling, ecology.

Pearlstine L. G., S. E. Smith, L. A. Brandt, C. R. Allen, W. M. Kitchens and J. Stenberg. 2002. Assessing state-wide biodiversity in the Florida Gap analysis project. Journal of Environmental Management.66(2).127-144. Key words: biodiversity, land cover classification, habitat modeling, gap analysis program, Florida.

Pearlstine, L. G., L. A. Brandt, W. M. Kitchens, and F. J. Mazzotti. 1995. Impacts of citrus development on habitats of southwest Florida. Conservation Biology. 9. 1020-1032.

Pease, K.M., A.H. Freedman, J.P. Pollinger, J.E. McCormack, W. Buermann, J. Rodzen, J. Banks, E. Meredith, V.C. Bleich, R.J. Schaefer, K. Jones, and R.K. Wayne. 2009. Landscape genetics of California mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus): the roles of ecological and historical factors in generating differentiation. Molecular Ecology 18(9):1848-1862.

Peterson, A.T., and D.A. Kluza. 2003. New distributional modelling approaches for gap analysis. Animal Conservation 6(1): 47-54.

Peterson A. T. 2005. Kansas Gap Analysis: The Importance of Validating Distributional Models before Using Them. The Southwestern Naturalist. 50(2).230–236.

Peterson D. L., S. L. Egbert, K. P. Price and E. A. Martinko. 2004. Identifying historical and recent land-cover changes in Kansas using post-classification change detection techniques. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science. 107(3).105–118.

Peterson, E.B. 2008. Invasion of the exotic grasses: mapping their progression via satellite. in Shrublands under fire: disturbance and recovery in a changing world. U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. Rocky Mountain Research Station. Cedar City, UT. 33-39.

Pinto, M.P., and C. E. Viveiros Grelle, 2009. Reserve selection and persistence: complementing the existing Atlantic Forest reserve system. Biodiversity and Conservation. 18(4).957-968. Key words:  Brazilian Atlantic forest, Complementarity, Efficiency, Gap analysis, Irreplaceability, Primates, Simulated annealing

Pitman J. C., C. A. Hagen, R. J. Robel, T. M. Loughin, and R. D. Applegate. 2005.Location and Success of Lesser Prairie-Chicken Nests in Relation to Vegetation and Human Disturbance. Journal of Wildlife Management. 69(3).1259–1269.

Pratt, P.D., D.H. Slone, M.B. Rayamajhi, T.K. Van, and T.D. Center. 2003. Geographic Distribution and Dispersal Rate of Oxyops vitiosa (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a Biological Control Agent of the Invasive Tree Melaleuca quinquenervia in South Florida. Environmental Entomology 32(2):397-406.

Prendergast, J. R., R. M. Quinn, and J. H. Lawton. 1999. The Gaps between Theory and Practice in Selecting Nature Reserves. Conservation Biology13(3)  pp. 484 – 492.

Prior-Magee J. S., B. C. Thompson, and D. Daniel. 1998. Evaluating consistency of categorizing biodiversity management status relative to land stewardship in the Gap Analysis Program.Journal of Environmental Planning and Management.41(2).209-216.

Rabe, M.J., S.S. Rosenstock, and D.I. Nielsen. 2005, Feral africanized honey bees (Apis Mellifere) in Sonoran desert habitats of southwestern Arizona. Southwestern Naturalist 50(3):307-311.

Rachlow, J.L., and L.K. Svancara. 2006, Prioritizing habitat for surveys of an uncommon mammal: a modeling approach applied to pygmy rabbits. Journal of Mammalogy 87(5):827-833.

Ramesh B. R., S. M. Bawa, and S. Kamaljit. 1997. A vegetation based approach to biodiversity gap analysis in the Agastyamalai region, Western Ghats, India. Ambio. 26. 529-36.

Ramsey, E., III, A. Rangoonwala, B. Middleton, and Z. Lu. 2009. Satellite optical and radar data used to track wetland forest impact and short-term recovery from Hurricane Katrina. Wetlands 29(1):66-79.

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Ramsey, R. D., C. G. Homer, and T. C. Edwards, Jr. 1993. Gap Analysis land cover map for the state of Utah: A hierarchical data base. Pages 298-306 in A.J. Lewis, editor. Looking to the future with an eye on the past. ASPRS Technical Papers, Vol. III.ASPRS/ACSM.Bethesda, Maryland.

Ramsey, R. D., C. G. Homer, and T. C. Edwards. 1994. Data preparation for the Gap Analysis study.Page 535 in Land information from space based systems: Proceedings of the Pecora 12 Symposium. ASPRS. Bethesda, Maryland.

Randhir, T. and P. Ekness. 2009. Urbanization effects on watershed habitat potential: a multivariate assessment of thresholds and interactions. Ecohydrology. 2. 88-101.

Rasberry, D. A., R. C. McCorkle, and J. N. Gorham. 1998. The Mid-Atlantic Gap Analysis Project (Maryland, Delaware, and New Jersey). Pages 188-194 in G.D. Therres, editor. Conservation of biological diversity: A key to the restoration of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem and beyond. Maryland Department of Natural Resources.Annapolis.

Rasmussen, C. 2006. Distribution of soil organic and inorganic carbon pools by biome and soil taxa in Arizona. Soil Science Society of America Journal 70(1):256-265.

Reese, H. M., T. M. Lillesand, D. E. Nagel, J. S. Stewart, R. A. Goldmann, T. E. Simmons, J. W. Chipman, and P. A. Tessar. 2002. Statewide land cover derived from multiseasonal Landsat TM data: A retrospective of the WISCLAND project.Remote Sensing of Environment.82(2/3).224. Key words: Gap Analysis, land cover, remote sensing, mapping.

Restani, M., R. O. Kimmel, J. R. Fieberg, and S. L. Goetz. 2009. Effects of supplemental food and experience on winter survival of transplanted wild turkeys. Wilson Journal of Ornithology. 121(2):366-377.

Rice, M.B., W. B. Ballard, E. B. Fish, N. E. McIntyre, and D. Holdermann. 2008. The importance of accurate landuse/landcover maps for assessing habitat suitability for black bear (Ursus americanus) in the Trans-Pecos region of Texas. Wildlife Biology in Practice. 4(2):48-56.

Rink, G.R., and A.C. Cully. 2007. A checklist of the vascular flora of Yucca House National Monument and surrounding lands, Montezuma County, Colorado. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 134(2):289-300.

Roberson, J.L., 2008. Bird species prediction modeling: a comparison of multiple modeling techniques at Francis Marion National Forest in South Carolina. Master’s thesis. University of South Carolina. Columbia, SC. 122 p.

Roberson, J.L., and J. A. Kupfer, J.A. 2009. Bird species prediction modeling: a comparison of multiple modeling techniques at Francis Marion National Forest in South Carolina. in Papers from the Annual Meeting of the Association of American Geographers. Las Vegas, NV.

Rodman, L.C., and R.K. Meentemeyer. 2006. A geographic analysis of wind turbine placement in Northern California. Energy Policy 34:2137-2149.

Rodrigues A. S. L., H. R. Akcakaya, S. J. Andelman, M. I. Bakaar, L. Boitani, T. M. Brooks, J. S. Chanson, L. D. C. Fishpool, G. A. B. Da Fonseca, K. J. Gaston, M. Hoffmann, P. A. Marquet, J. D. Pilgrim, R. L. Pressey, J. Schipper, W. Sechrest, S. N. Stuart, L. G. Underhill, R. W. Waller, M. E. J. Watts, X. Yan. 2004. Global Gap Analysis: Priority Regions for Expanding the Global Protected-Area Network. BioScience. 54(12).1092–1100.

Rodriguez, J. P., L. Brotons, J. Bustamante, J. Seoane. 2007. The application of predictive modelling of species distribution to biodiversity conservation.Diversity and Distributions. 13(13).243-251. Key words: PROTECTED-AREA NETWORK, CLIMATE-CHANGE, GAP ANALYSIS, PLANT INVASIONS, ATLAS DATA, BIOLOGICAL INVASIONS, ENVIRONMENTAL-CHANGE, NATURE-RESERVES, HABITAT MODELS, SPATIAL MODEL

Root, K.V., H.R. Akcakaya, and L. Ginzburg. 2003. A multispecies approach to ecological valuation and conservation. Conservation Biology 17(1):196-206.

Roth, T.C., II, W.E. Vetter, and S.L. Lima. 2008. Spatial ecology of winting accipiter hawks: home range, habitat use, and the influence of bird feeder. Condor 110(2):260-268.

Roth, J.E., J.P. Kelly, W.J. Sydeman, and M.A. Colwell. 2004. Sex differences in space use of breeding common ravens in western Marin County, California. Condor 106(3):529-539.

Rubbo, M.J., and J.M. Kiesecker. 2005. Amphibian breeding distribution in an urbanized landscape. Conservation Biology 19(2):504-511.

Schaefer, S. M., and W. B. Krohn. 2002. Predicting vertebrate occurrences from species habitat associations, Improving the interpretation of commission error rates. Pages 419-427 in J.M. Scott, P.J. Heglund, M.L. Morrison et al., editors. Predicting species occurrences: Issues of accuracy and scale. Island Press, Washington, D.C 868 pp.

Schumacher, J. V., R. L. Redmond, M. M. Hart, and M. E. Jensen. 2000. Mapping patterns of human use and potential resource conflicts on public lands. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 64. 127-137.

Schwilk, D.W., and J. E. Keeley. 2006. The role of fire refugia in the distribution of pinus sabiniana (pinaceae) in the southern Sierra Nevada. Madroño. 53(4):364-372.

Scott, J. M., P. J. Heglund, M. L. Morrison, eds. 2002. Predicting Species Occurrences: Issues of Accuracy and Scale. Island Press.Washington, D.C.

Scott, J. M., F. W. Davis, R. G. McGhie, R. G. Wright, C. Groves, and J. Estes. 2001. Nature reserves: Do they capture the full range of America’s biological diversity? Ecological Applications. 11. 999-1007.

Scott, J. M., M. Murray, R. G. Wright, B. Csuti, P. Morgan, and R. L. Pressey. 2001. Representation of natural vegetation in protected areas: Capturing the geographic range. Biodiversity and Conservation .10. 1297-1301.

Scott, J. M., R. J. F. Abbitt, C. R. Groves. 2001. What are we protecting? The United States conservation portfolio. Conservation Biology in Practice. 2. 18-19.

Scott, J. M. 1999. Vulnerability of forested ecosystems in the Pacific Northwest to loss of area. Pages 33-42 in J.A. Rochelle, L.A. Lehmann, and J. Wisniewski, editors.Forest fragmentation: Wildlife and management implications.Brill. Leiden, The Netherlands.

Scott, J. M. 1999. A representative biological reserve system for the United States? Society for Conservation Biology Newsletter. 6(2).1, 9

Scott, J. M., B. Csuti, R. G. Wright, P. J. Crist, and M. D. Jennings. 1999. Regional approaches to managing and conserving biodiversity. Pages 55-70 in R.K. Baydack, H. Campa III, and J.B. Haufler, editors. Practical approaches to the conservation of biological diversity. Island Press.Washington, D.C.

Scott, J. M., and M. D. Jennings. 1998. Large-area mapping of biodiversity. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden.85. 34-47.

Scott, J. M., and B. Csuti. 1997. Gap Analysis for biodiversity survey and maintenance. Pages 321-340 in M. L. Reaka-Kudla, D. E. Wilson, and E. O. Wilson, editors. Biodiversity II: Understanding and protecting our biological resources. Joseph Henry Press. Washington, D.C.

Scott, J. M., and B. Csuti. 1997. Gap Analysis: Assessing landscape trends in diversity. Pages 409-410 in G.K. Meffe and C.R. Carroll, editors. Principles of conservation biology. Second edition. Sinauer Associates, Inc Sunderland, Massachusetts.

Scott, J. M., and B. Csuti. 1996. Noah worked two jobs.Conservation Biology. 11. 1255-1257.

Scott, J. M., M. Jennings, R. G. Wright, and B. Csuti. 1996. Landscape approaches to mapping elements of biodiversity. BioScience. 46. 77-78.

Scott, J. M., T. H. Tear, and F. Davis, editors. 1996. Gap Analysis: A landscape approach to biodiversity planning. American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. Bethesda, Maryland.

Scott, J. M., E. D. Ables, T. C. Edwards, Jr., R. L. Eng, T.A. Gavin, L. D. Harris, J.B. Haufler, W. M. Healy, F. Knopf, O. Torgerson, and H. P. Weeks, Jr. 1995. Conservation of biological diversity: Perspectives and the future for the wildlife profession. Wildlife Society Bulletin .23. 646-657.

Scott, J. M., E. T. LaRoe, and M.D. Jennings. 1995. Gap Analysis: A geographic approach to planning for biological diversity.Page 462 in E.T. LaRoe, G.S. Farris, C.E. Puckett, P.D. Doran, and M.J. Mac, editors. Our living resources. National Biological Service. Washington, D.C.

Scott, J. M., T. H. Tear, and L. S. Mills. 1995. Socioeconomics and the recovery of endangered species: Biological assessment in a political world. Conservation Biology. 9. 214-216.

Scott, J. M., and B. Csuti. 1994. Bridging the gap. Idaho Research.Winter 1994. 8-10.

Scott, J. M. 1994. Preserving and restoring avian diversity: a search for solutions. Studies in Avian Biology. 15. 340-348.

Scott, J. M., and M. D. Jennings, editors. 1994. A handbook for Gap Analysis.Idaho Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit.University of Idaho. Moscow, Idaho.

Scott, J. M., S. A. Temple, D. L. Harlow, and M. L. Shaffer. 1994. Restoration and management of endangered species. Pages 531-539 in T.A. Bookhout, editor. Research and management techniques for wildlife and habitats. The Wildlife Society.Bethesda, Maryland.

Scott, J. M., B Csuti, and F. W. Davis. 1993. An application of geographical information systems for wildlife species. Challenges in the Conservation of Biological Resources. Pp 167-180 In Decker, D. J., M. E. Krasny, G. R. Goff, C. R. Smith, and D. W. Gross (Eds.).A practitioners Guide. Westview Special Studies in Natural Resources and Energy Management. Boulder, Colorado.

Scott, J. M., F. Davis, B. Csuti, R. Noss, B. Butterfield, C. Groves, H. Anderson, S. Caicco, F. D’Erchia, T. C. Edwards Jr., J. Ulliman, and G. Wright. 1993. Gap Analysis: A geographic approach to protection of biodiversity. Wildlife Monographs. 123. 1-41.

Scott, J. M., and B. Csuti. 1992. Gap Analysis: Blueprint for proactive conservation. FOCUS on Renewable Natural Resources 17. 1-2 (1991 Annual Report). Idaho Forest, Wildlife and Range Experiment Station. College of Forestry, Wildlife and Range Sciences. University of Idaho. Moscow.

Scott, J. M., B. Csuti, and E. T. LaRoe. 1992. Protecting biodiversity (Letter). Issues in Science and Technology. 8(4).21.

Scott, J. M., B. Csuti, D. Stoms, and F. Davis. 1992. Remote sensing for nongame wildlife habitat management. Pages 134-140 in Transactions of the 56th North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference (1991).

Scott, J. M., B. Csuti, K. Smith, J. E. Estes, and S. Caicco. 1991. Gap analysis of species richness and vegetation cover: an integrated biodiversity conservation strategy. Pages 282-297 in K. A. Kohm, ed. Balancing on the brink of extinction: the Endangered Species Act and lessons for the future. Island Press. Washington, D. C.

Scott, J.M., B. Csuti, and S. Caicco. 1991. Gap Analysis: Assessing protection needs.Pages 15-26 in W.E. Hudson, editor.Landscape linkages and biodiversity. Island Press.Washington, D.C.

Scott, J. M., B. Csuti, and F. Davis. 1991. Gap Analysis: An application of geographic information systems for wildlife species. Pages 167-180 in D.J. Decker, M.E. Krasny, G.R. Goff, C.R. Smith, and D.W. Gross, editors. Challenges in the conservation of biological resources: A practitioner’s guide. Westview Press.Boulder, Colorado.

Scott, J. M., B. Csuti, and K. Smith. 1990. Commentary: Playing Noah while paying the devil. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America. 71(3).156-159.

Scott, J. M. 1990. Preserving life on earth: A new approach. FOCUS on Renewable Natural Resources 4. 1-2.

Scott, J. M. 1990. Preserving life on earth: We need a new approach.Journal of Forestry. 88(3).13-14.

Scott, J. M., B. Csuti, J. E. Estes, and H. Anderson. 1989. Status assessment of biodiversity protection.Conservation Biology. 3(1).85-87.

Scott, J. M., B. Csuti, K. Smith, J. E. Estes, and S. Caicco. 1988. Beyond endangered species: An integrated conservation strategy for the preservation of biological diversity. Endangered Species UPDATE. 5(10).43-48.

Scott, J. M., B. Csuti, J. D. Jacobi, and J. E. Estes. 1987. Species richness: A geographic approach to protecting future biological diversity. BioScience. 37. 782-788.

Shaffer, M. 1996. The promise of Gap Analysis for understanding biodiversity. Pages 3-5 in J.M. Scott, T.H. Tear, and F. Davis, editors. Gap Analysis: A landscape approach to biodiversity planning. American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. Bethesda, Maryland.

Shinneman, D. J., J. Watson, and W. W. Martin. 2000. The state of the Southern Rockies ecoregion: A look at species imperilment, ecosystem protection, and a conservation opportunity. Endangered Species Update. Ann Arbor, MI. 17(1).2. Key words: Conservation Protected land, Restoration, Techniques.

Shriner, S. A., K. R. Wilson, and C. H. Flather. 2006. Reserve networks based on richness hotspots and representation vary with scale. Ecological Applications. 16(5).1660. Key words: biodiversity, conservation planning, hotspots, reserve selection, species richness.

Singleton, P.H., W.L. Gaines, and J.F. Lehmkuhl. 2004, Landscape permeability for grizzly bear movements in Washington and southwestern British Columbia. Ursus 15(1):90-103.

Smith, C. R. 1991. Challenges in the conservation of biological resources: An epilogue. Pages 367-376 in D. J. Decker, M. E. Krasny, G. R. Goff, C. R. Smith, and D. W. Gross, editors. Challenges in the conservation of biological resources: A practitioner’s guide. Westview Press. Boulder, Colorado.

Smith, C. R., and S. K. Gregory. 1998. Bird habitats in New York state.Pages 29-41 in E. Levine, editor.Bull’s birds of New York state.Comstock Publishing Associates. Ithaca, New York.

Smith, V. J., and J. A. Jenks. 2002. Ranked modeling of small mammals based on capture data.Pages 441-445 in J. M. Scott, P. J. Heglund, M. L. Morrison et al., editors.Predicting species occurrences: Issues of accuracy and scale. Island Press. Washington, D.C 868 pp.

Sowa, S. P., G. Annis, M. Morey, D. Diamond. 2007. A gap analysis and comprehensive conservation strategy for rivering ecosystems of Missouri. Ecological Monographs. 77(3).301-334. Key words: mapping methods, conservation, crayfish, distributions, mussels, biodiversity, ecosystem classifications, aquatic ecosystems, environmental management, gap analysis, riverine ecosystems, ecological classifications.

Sowa, S., P. Haverland. 1999. The Missouri Aquatic Gap Pilot Project: A multi-agency GIS tool for assessing Missouri’s aquatic resources.First International Symposium on Gis in Fishery Science: Abstract. p. 95. Key words: mapping methods, conservation, crayfish, distributions, mussels, biodiversity, ecosystem classifications, aquatic ecosystems, environmental management, gap analysis, riverine ecosystems, ecological classifications.

Stewart, J. S., L. Wang, B. C. Scudder, M. Schneider, M. W. Diebel, C. R. Smith, M. A. Lutz, K. Stensvold. 2003. An aquatic gap project for Wisconsin streams. International Association for Great Lakes Research Conference Program and Abstracts. 2003(46th). p. 154. Key words: aquatic environments, streams, gap analysis, ecology, species distributions, stream classifications, fish communities.

Stein, B.A., C. Scott, and N. Benton. 2008. Federal lands and endangered species: The role of military and other federal lands in sustaining biodiversity. BioScience 58(4):339-347.

Stine, P. A., F. W. Davis, B. Csuti, and J. M. Scott. 1996. Comparative utility of vegetation maps of different resolutions for conservation planning.Pages 210-220 in R. C. Szaro and D. W. Johnston, editors.Biodiversity in managed landscapes. Oxford University Press. New York.

Stoms, D. M., 2005. GAP management status and regional indicators of threats to biodiversity.Landscape Ecology. 2000. 15(1).21-33. Key words: Gap Analysis, Ecology, biodiversity.

Stoms D. M., F. W. Davis, K. L. Driese, K. M. Cassidy, and M. P. Murray. 1998. Gap analysis of the vegetation of the Intermountain Semi-Desert ecoregion. Great Basin Naturalist. 58(3).199-216. Key words: gap analysis, land cover, land management, conservation assessment, National Vegetation Classification System, alliance.

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